Written by Dr. David Dunbar Wednesday, 14 March 2012 00:00

I’m still working on Christian Smith’s challenging book The Bible Made Impossible (Brazos, 2011).  Smith charges Evangelicalism with propounding an unworkable theory about the nature and function of the Bible which he calls “Biblicism.” One need not embrace all aspects of his critique (I don’t) to appreciate that some of his observations are spot on.

The particular issue I will address is what Smith calls the “Handbook Model.” Here is how he explains the position that he adamantly disagrees with:  “The Bible teaches doctrine and morals with every affirmation that it makes, so that together those affirmations comprise something like a handbook or textbook for Christian belief and living, a compendium of divine and therefore inerrant teachings on a full array of subjects—including science, economics, health, politics, and romance” (p. 5).

As evidence that this is a real problem, Smith provides a substantial list of book titles and web-sites from the Evangelical world.  Some of my favorites:  The World according to God:  A Biblical View of Culture, Work, Science, Sex, and Everything Else; Gardening with Biblical Plants; and Queen Esther’s Secrets of Womanhood:  A Biblical Rite of Passage for Your Daughter [!]

While there is an amusing side to this that we might just dismiss as the lunatic fringe in the Evangelical family, I don’t think we should.  The reality is that there is a large group of people in our churches that embraces this general approach to Scripture, and too frequently they are encouraged in this direction by leaders who employ the Bible in just this way.

The mistake is easily made in a culture where technology rules us and where handbooks tell us how to use and maintain the technology. If God wants to speak with us, doesn’t it make sense that he would give us a handbook? Give us clear instructions to repair the human machine and we can fix it!

But of course, he didn’t. He gave us a story . . . about Israel, and Jesus, and the disciples of Jesus. Not all the Bible is a story, but even the non-story parts fit in and around the story. And the problem with a story is that it is not a handbook and cannot be interpreted like a repair manual without violating the nature of the story. The simple fact is that Queen Esther’s story was not intended to yield a manual on the secrets of how to be a woman in the modern world. The story of Esther is important and needs to be taught, but its significance must be understood in a whole different way.  That however is a discussion for another time!

Dave Dunbar is president of Biblical Seminary.  He has been married to Sharon for 42 years.  They have four grown children and six grand children.


Written by Dr. Kyuboem Lee Tuesday, 13 March 2012 00:00

I was getting ready for the upcoming Biblical Seminary class on Anthropology, reading a course textbook, Charles H. Kraft’s Anthropology for Christian Witness (published by Orbis). This work, first published in 1994, is an indispensable work for understanding culture from a missional perspective, and therefore is essential reading for anyone who is committed to a thoughtful communication of the gospel and an effective kingdom mission. However, it does show its age. Our world has changed in some dramatic ways since he penned this work--in a word, globalization.

Kraft states a major purpose of anthropological studies as safeguarding our Christian witness from “the enemy within us--our own ethnocentrism” (xiii). A great benefit to understanding culture is that we begin to be self-critical in matters of cultural presuppositions--a vital skill in engaging cross-culturally. He goes on to explain, “One of our major aims in this approach to the study of anthropology is to learn to protect the people of other societies from our own inclination to make them like us” (2). The application for the missionary from the West is obvious, but Kraft also had this to say for international students from the Two-Thirds World: one, the study of anthropology can help you overcome the cultural inferiority complex that arises from being a student in a western education system; and two, it can give you the corrective needed against looking down on the traditional segments of your own home culture (3-4).

These are wonderful words from a major figure in contemporary missiology reflecting on the checkered history of modern mission that anyone who is involved in cross-cultural ministry needs to heed seriously. But in our globalizing world, where various cultures (outside the traditional Western hegemony) are ascendant, the applications need to be made even more broadly than to Western cultural chauvinism. For instance, should the same warning against ethnocentrism be sounded to missionaries from South Korea, who are now found in every corner of the globe? What about its application to the immigrant pastors from Western Africa ministering in Queens, New York, one of the most diverse places in the world? And what of the African-American and Hispanic Christians living and serving in North American urban neighborhoods which are now home to increasing numbers of new immigrants from places such as Cambodia, Middle East, and others? After all, Western white culture does not have a corner on ethnocentrism, just as it does not have a corner on biblical theology.

This is not to say that the legacy of the recent Western predominance in Christianity does not loom over the global church’s present-day missional endeavor--to deny its influence would be to deny reality. But there is much that anthropology can teach every one of us about our own brand of ethnocentrism, no matter what part of the world we come from or what culture nurtured us. And it is crucial that we struggle with our own ethnocentrism, especially now when we are confronted by a global world in which diversity is the norm, if we are to have a credible Christian witness. It is a tragedy that Christianity is too often being promoted and practiced as a tribal religion when in fact it is a uniquely global religion, with a unique appeal to our global world.

The good news is that Christianity is a global religion par excellence. Translation is built into its Scriptures (as Lamin Sanneh has pointed out so well, contra Islam which does not allow for translation and sees only one culture--the Arab culture--as sacred); Christianity’s redemptive history is marked by God’s covenant expanding, gathering and including all nations; and Acts as the history of the first Christian mission is a story of the gospel traversing cultural barriers, a trajectory that the church is to continue on until the consummation of history. This global nature of Christianity challenges our ethnocentric tendencies, which we all have within us, and turns us outward to embrace the other. It is a blessing of the gospel.

So, anyone want to sign up for future Anthropology classes?

Dr. Kyuboem Lee serves as a lecturer of Urban Mission at Biblical Seminary. He is the founding pastor of Germantown Hope Community Church in Philadelphia, and the General Editor for the Journal of Urban Mission 


Written by Justin Gohl Monday, 12 March 2012 00:00

For my part, one of the main insights of a missional approach to theology is that “mission” does not require a change in physical location per se. I tried to get at this idea in a blog post here back in November (11/29), in connection with Acts 17 and the idea of “sacramentality”—which we could just as easily term “incarnational.” Because the Word (Logos) who became flesh always filled the world he had made (cf. Col 1.17), the incarnation was not a “change of location” for the Son/Word, but a new form of self-manifestation for the purposes of revealing himself to and redeeming a broken, rebellious world, in a way that we could understand (with the Spirit’s help).

Being a stay-at-home parent presently with two kids under the age of 3, this is a very important, helpful, and challenging way of viewing the world. Practically speaking, I am not free to roam as I please, to spend my time as I please, to engage in many extra-curricular activities. My participation in God’s mission in this season of life takes place within the structures and flow of life in the world that God has created—namely, parents raising children. A missional-incarnational-sacramental reframing of parenting challenges me to see my and my wife’s efforts as a ministry which has God’s ultimate purposes in mind, of redeeming and reconciling the world to himself. And this both respect to my children and myself—with my children, for them to be formed as Christ-followers and responsible citizens; and with me, frankly, both to be encouraged and gladdened, and for it become clear where I lack the fruit of the Spirit in, at times, significant ways—patience, gentleness, joy—and to pray for renewal and transformation in myself.

Is not this training and purification for God’s mission? Is not God’s mission for us to embody the fruit of the Spirit wherever we may be, as God’s agents of reconciliation in the world?

For many in the Reformed tradition especially, this emphasis is not new, with its focus on the covenantal nature of the Church and the family as a microcosm of the covenant community. What has intrigued me as I have interacted with early church readings of the Book of Proverbs—which itself has no little focus on parenting—is the degree to which some prominent figures in the early church were concerned with the life of the family in the Church. Homiletical treaties from both John Chrysostom and Basil the Great have been preserved in which methods of Christian parenting are discussed and the question of what influences we allow on our children is raised.

(For translations of the two treatises, see: M. L. Laistner, Christianity and Pagan Culture in the Later Roman Empire, together with An English Translation of John Chrysostom’s “Address on Vainglory and the Right Way for Parents to Bring Up Their Children,” [Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1951]; Saint Basil, Address to Young Men on Reading Greek Literature. Pages 363-435 in vol. 4 of Saint Basil: The Letters [trans. R. J. Deferrari and Martin R. P. McGuire; Loeb Classical Library; Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, reprint 1970].)

What we see in both could fairly be described as a reframing of parenting in missional terms which seeks to preserve the all-important internal/external tension that is at the heart of missional theology and church life. We take care of and shape the internal life and identity of the family and church so as to be faithful and effective representatives of Christ in every place we go, in every station of life, with a prudent readiness to see and find God already at work in the world to which we are sent.

May we be empowered by the Spirit towards this end!

Justin Gohl is an adjunct professor of theology at Biblical. He is married to Kate, his wife of 7 years, and is a full-time stay-at-home dad with two kids, Caleb (2) and Phoebe (1). He is ABD at Lutheran Theological Seminary at Philadelphia where he is in the latter stages of writing his dissertation on the early church’s use of the Book of Proverbs.


Written by Professor Steve Taylor Friday, 09 March 2012 00:00

Note to the reader: This is the fourth in a series of blogs on reading the Bible as a biblical theological unity. For context, readers should consult the prior posts.

A Practical Motive

In our last post on this topic we discovered how Origen of Alexandria rescued the third century church from its bafflement with the Bible.

Origen was hardly some ivory-tower theoretician in all this. His motives, on full display throughout his writings, were thoroughly pastoral. He was convinced that every scripture was inspired by God to bless his people. Moreover, Origen insisted that Scripture must interpret Scripture. As he put it in his Commentary on Matthew (2.18), "Every interpretation which is outside scripture is not holy.… No one can bring his own interpretations unless he shall have shown them to be holy, from that which is contained in the divine scriptures." Origen insisted that the unity of the Bible was to be found in Christ. Christ, he insisted, is "the spirit which was at work in the prophets…, who became man and said: 'It is I who speak; here am I'" (referring to Isa 52:6; PG 13:657-8  D) and Christ is "the prophesied gift toward which, in essence, all prophecy tends" (PG 13:659-60 C).

A Method Adopted

And even though parts of Origen’s theology and a large part of his interpretive approach were later questioned by some in the church (on the latter, look up “The Antiochene School” in any theological dictionary), the church in the western part of the Roman Empire followed, for the next 900 years and with minor variations, Origen’s grand solution: a strong Rule of Faith and an interpretive approach that went beyond the literal/historical meaning of Biblical texts to spiritual meanings supportive of Christian ethics and theology. Among Origen’s disciples were the great Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in the late 4thand early 5thcenturies and his contemporary, the Bible scholar and translator Jerome.

A “For Instance”

Perhaps a concise yet revealing instance of this three- or four-fold approach to biblical interpretation  is provided by Gregory the Great (540--604 CE), the last of the Latin Fathers and one of the notable popes of the Roman church. He was asked to write a commentary on the book of Job* which would, "not only shake loose from the words of the historical narrative their allegorical meaning, but … also direct the allegorical interpretation towards moral edification," all the while bringing other scriptural text to bear on his interpretations (Origen’s program precisely!). In his introduction, Gregory explains his aims and methods:

First we lay the foundations of historical fact; then we lift up the mind to the citadel of faith through allegory; finally through the exposition of the moral sense we dress the edifice in its colored raiment. The utterances of Truth are nothing but nourishment to refresh the soul. Expounding the text in various ways we offer dishes for the pallet of different kinds, so that we may banish the reader’s boredom…. Sometimes we neglect to expound the overt historical sense lest we be retarded getting to the deeper matters. Sometimes passages cannot be expounded literally because when they are taken in that superficial way they offer no instruction to the reader but only generate error. (Cited by Yarchin, p. 88; italics mine; note the practical purpose of scripture)

Gregory then proceeds to expound each section of the book of Job—sometimes verse by verse—according to the three different levels: the literal, the allegorical, and the tropological (or moral).

So Job 1:2 narrates: "Seven sons were born to him, and three daughters." Why does Scripture relate such apparently insignificant facts? How might the number of Job's offspring bear witness to Christian truth or provide moral guidance for the reader? As for the literal meaning, Gregory explains that the large number of Job's children is one measure of his true greatness: since "not even love for his many children could make him cling to his property." These facts are the first indications in the story of Job’s piety and humility.

More significant however is the allegorical meaning: Gregory notes that "holy scripture is in the habit of using the number seven as a symbol of perfection" (the Sabbath, the Jubilee year, etc.). Moreover, as a prime number, seven is comprised of the numbers four and three which, when multiplied together, equal the number twelve, a clear reference  to "the apostles going forth manfully to preach…, who were sent to preach the three persons of God to the four corners of the world." The three daughters (who cannot properly symbolize of the Trinity) either represent "the multitude of hearers" of the twelve apostles or the three different classes of believers within the church: pastors, the ascetics and celibates, and the married.

Finally, the tropological or moral meaning refers to the "seven virtues of the Holy Spirit" enumerated in Isaiah 11:2-3 coupled with the three theological virtues enumerated by the apostle Paul in 1 Cor 13, namely, hope, faith, and love. All these virtues together define the moral perfection of the number ten.

Some “Take-aways”

It will be helpful for our future posts on a Christotelic reading of scripture to underline some closing observations. This kind of manifold reading of the Bible recommended by Origen and adopted by the medieval church in the Latin West

  1. Was pursued under the conviction that every scripture is “inspired by God” (2 Tim 3:16) and therefore invested with rich divine meaning—meaning discoverable for the rest of the church by the diligent and gifted.
  2. Was done in service of actualizingthe text of the Bible, i.e., of ensuring that every passage of the Bible is indeed “profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness” (again 2 Tim 3:16) and thus capable of being lived out (actualized).
  3. Tended to treat biblical passages atomistically: the narrative or argumentative coherence of the text itself was frequently sacrificed (or at least de-emphasized)  as verses, phrases and even words were taken out of their immediate contexts and made to point to Christian truths or maxims above the passage being interpreted.
  4. Relied on the Rule of Faith to safeguard the coherence of the biblical message and to check the arbitrariness of the interpretive method. What seemed arbitrary or even fanciful at the textual level was actually justified and legitimated at the higher level of systematic and timeless truth.  Though in theory Christ was affirmed as the theme of scripture, in actuality he became a cipher for an increasingly complex set of theological propositions. The reading of scripture became a ruled reading governed by an external rule.

All of these developments tended to yield a flat Bible who’s deepest and most vital meaning coincided with a body of timeless and universal truths and principles rather than being found in the stark particularities a story climaxing in Jesus the Messiah. Within the constraints of the Rule of Faith and the resourcefulness of the interpreter, any unit or component of the Bible could refer directly to postulates already known to be true on other grounds. The Bible came to be a book of symbols and examples rather than the surprising record of God’s redemptive triumph.

What do you think? How much is this reading strategy still with us today?

* Conveniently excerpted in William Yarchin, History of Biblical Interpretation: A Reader (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011), pp. 88-92.

Stephen Taylor is Associate Professor of New Testament at Biblical. He is a missionary kid fascinated with the question of the relationship between culture and understanding the Bible. Steve is married to Terri, and together they have five kids. See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/stephen-taylor .



Written by Susan Disston Thursday, 08 March 2012 00:00

If you’ve ever been in a jam while at your computer, you’ve probably hit the Esc key or pounded it hoping for a quick fix to whatever the problem is. The Esc key is a shortcut that stops, quits, cancels, exits, or aborts the situation so that you can start over. Fresh.

Coincidentally, the word eschatology also begins with Esc. Eschatology in the Christian tradition is the study of the end times and of our ultimate destiny: a new heaven and a new earth (Isaiah 65-66). A destiny where we start over. Fresh.

Christopher Wright wrote about this place from the Isaiah passage—“joyful, free from grief and tears, life-fulfilling, with guaranteed work satisfaction, free from the curse of frustrated labor, and environmentally safe” It is a vision that pus most New Age dreams in the shade.” The Mission of God, p. 408.

It is this vision that Wright says should propel the Christian toward creation care: that it is both humanity and the creation itself that will be caught up and made new by God. Wright added, “It follows then, from a creational and eschatological perspective, that ecological care and action is a dimension of our mission inasmuch as it is a dimension of restoring the proper status and responsibility of our humanity. It is to behave as we were originally created to and as we will one day be fully redeemed for.” p. 414.

Some Christians respond to creation care as “just another fad.” When they dismiss the so-called fad, they are metaphorically hitting the Esc key, the one that stops, quits, cancels,... rather than connecting the beginning of God’s story with the end and seeing the earth—creation—as a vital part of what God has provided to humanity for blessing.

For more of Christopher Wright on creation care,  go to CreationCare.org.

Susan Disston is the assistant dean of curriculum and assessment at Biblical Seminary. She teaches project courses in the doctor of ministry program and in ESLPLUS. http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/adjunct-faculty-theology



Written by Dr. Charles Zimmerman Wednesday, 07 March 2012 00:00

Where have they gone & where are they now?  

I have been contacting founding faculty members to see what they are up these days and to then blog that information so that you can be updated. 

Thus far, we have heard from “Doc” Newman, Gary Cohen and Bob Vannoy.  If you missed those blog entries, scroll back and take a look.  I asked each to provide contact information, so feel free to drop them a note of encouragement and while you’re at it, attach a comment to the appropriate blog entry. 

Today we will hear from George Clark.  I think that at one time or another George held every job possible at Biblical – interim president, registrar, faculty member, admissions, supervisor of faculties, etc.  My fondest memories of George are from Homiletics class where he helped me stumble through the first sermon I ever preached.  In the follow up debrief, he corrected my grammar, provided lots of helpful hints, but more than anything else, encouraged me to keep preaching.   

What years did you teach at Biblical?

I served at Biblical from September, 1971 through May, 2000, following 11 years as a foreign and home missionary.

During my first year with BTS I helped set up the Academic Offices, performed additional administrative duties, and I endeavored to repair whatever mechanical or electrical devices broke down … For the remaining 28 years I served with the Administration and was a member of the Faculty.

 1.  Tell a favorite memory from your Biblical days.

 Having served for 29 years at Biblical Seminary, I have many “special memories” of which I will share just three at this time.

 Student Joe Basile

Joe grew up as a Roman Catholic in Bayone, NJ, and then joined the Jehovah’s Witnesses, searching for eternal salvation.  He later heard the gospel and accepted Christ as his Savior, soon after which he came to study at Biblical.

In those days the Seminary had a faculty counselor for each student, and I was Joe’s counselor.  Joe’s greatest desire was to win people to Christ as Savior.  He was a good student, even though he spent most of his time witnessing for the Lord and working on his homiletics studies. 

We’ve had the joy of maintaining contact with Joe over the years, as he worked with Dr. Jack Murray’s Bible Evangelism for a while and then went on to plant a church in his own home town of Bayonne.  There he married a young widow with two young sons, who today serve part-time and full-time with him at the church, which has now grown to be one the largest and most effective evangelical churches in the area.  Joe and his wife Pat remain two of our dearest friends.

Student Gary Anderson

Gary came from a fine Christian home, and had a brother who was doing a good job as a minister and pastor.  Since Gary and I both loved to bow-hunt, we would make the time to hunt together during the Fall of each school year.  Gary was also a good student, whose passion was to learn how to preach.  He chose every opportunity he could to preach while at Biblical, and then upon graduation took the pastorate of a small church in northern PA.

Since we remained good friends, he would often invite me to come to preach at his church, AND to hunt with him during the week in the area nearby.  By God’s grace, Gary’s church grew to be quite large and effective … And he was invited to lake the leadership of one of the largest evangelical missions organizations, Baptist Mid-Missions.

Student Carl Martin

Carl grew up in central PA on a farm, where he learned to do just about anything that needed to be done – electrical, mechanical, construction-wise, gardening, and landscaping.  Upon his arrival for study at Biblical, he was quickly placed in charge of the School’s entire maintenance department.

The Seminary purchased a nearby property with a small residence, and Carl lived in the cottage and did all the mowing, as he continued the oversight of all the repair and upkeep at the BTS property.  I often wondered how Carl would develop as a student, since he worked for so many hours each day …  However he proved to be one of those individuals who needed only four or five hours of sleep each night!

He began to preach in various local churches, while at seminary, and upon graduation was called to pastor a local Bible Protestant Church.  He traveled on short-term mission trips to teach biblical courses, and eventually married a young lady who had grown up as an MK.

Sherie and I have had the privilege of following the ministry of Carl and Beth through the years, and have been invited to help them in the area of Family Life Conferences at the two churches where he served as pastor. He and Beth have raised a son (currently serving as an officer in the Navy) and four daughters (three of whom are presently ministering on Asian mission fields, while their fourth is finishing her college study).  

Following his seminary years, Carl went on to earn his D.Min. degree, and has currently nearly completed the work for his Ph.D.  He has been a full-time member of the faculty of Clearwater Christian College for a number of years now, and continues to preach in local churches and to minister in short-term mission field ministries.   It has been a great joy for us to watch Carl and Beth raise their family in Covenant relationship with the Lord, and to minister so effectively in Christ’s Kingdom.  It has been a great joy for Sherie and me to share in their ministry.

What have you been doing since then?  Be sure to include a brief update on your family.

After retiring from Biblical in 2000, we moved to Tampa Florida to be near our son and his family, since we were the only living grandparents.  Although we were not excited about moving to the heat and humidity of Florida summers, it has been a great joy to be a part of our growing family’s life and endeavors and has made it all worth the effort.

Our older son Phil, Vice President of Technology with Lightning Source, and wife Diane have home-schooled our two grand children (Nicolette, 13, and Christopher, 15) who are excellent students, very active in sports, enjoy playing piano, and are exceptionally sociable.

Our younger son Lauren and wife Lecersia met as senior engineers at Lockheed-Martin in Fort Worth, TX, and minister as elder and elder’s wife in the local PCA church – where Lauren has taught the high school boys’ Sunday School class and many of the adult classes for years.

With our move to Florida, we became active in a local PCA church as I often preached, we both taught, and participated in music ministry.  I also had opportunities to perform baptisms, conduct wedding ceremonies, do some counseling, and to minister in other nearby churches as well.

But then in 2004, our world “tilted” as I endured a “small” stroke, due to an atrial-fibrillation heart problem.   We were visiting with our son and wife in Texas, at the time, and received good care at their local hospital.  After returning to Tampa, I went through several months of therapy which helped me regain some of my memory loss.  However, there remain residual problems with what is called “retrieval of proper nouns” and the “processing in series”, whether of events, directives, lists, etc.; and therefore I can no longer enjoy the preaching and teaching I once did. 

However, I do continue to do some mentoring with families at our church and in our neighborhood, and I head our community’s Home-Owner Association Board’s Budget Committee.  We enjoy opening our home in hospitality and outreach to our friends and neighbors, and Sherie continues to minister in music, teaching, and the mentoring of women.

Contact Information

Our home address:            The Rev. & Mrs. George S. Clark; 4701 Corsage Drive;  Lutz, FL  33558

Our email address:            This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Charles Zimmerman is the Thomas V. Taylor Professor of Practical Theology.  He also serves as Teaching Pastor at Calvary Church in Souderton.  He is married to Kim and they have two daughters, Ashley and Megan.  See alsohttp://biblical.edu/index.php/charles-zimmerman


Written by Dr. David Dunbar Tuesday, 06 March 2012 00:00

Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s classic study of Christian community provides the title for this post. Bonhoeffer makes it clear that true community is not an easy thing.  In fact, it is not a human possibility, for only the Holy Spirit can produce a community that actually functions as the body of Christ. 

One of the principal obstacles to embodying a biblical vision of life together in the American context is the prevailing culture of therapeutic individualism. Most of us see ourselves first as individuals rather than as members of family, church, nation, etc.  We have imbibed deeply at the river of self-care and self-fulfillment.  Indeed, we have difficulty imagining any approach other than “me first” even in the spiritual realm. 

I am struck by this repeatedly when I listen to much of the music we sing in our churches. How often the lyrics abound with first person singulars!  “I” and “me” appear with dreary monotony as we reinforce the idea that Christian faith is basically about me and Jesus.  Why don’t we sing about “we” and “us”?  Sometimes I purposely change the words to plural just to resist the tide of Christian Narcissism. 

In his recent book Jesus Have I Loved, but Paul? Daniel Kirk discusses how this same cultural filter leads to a misunderstanding of the apostle’s teaching regarding spiritual gifts: 

In one of the most profound ironies of my own experience, talk of such gifts has usually been part of a larger vision of self-discovery. We take inventories to see what gifts each one of us has. We sit down with a list of tasks wherein we might find ourselves well employed within our gifting. In the process, what for Paul was an inherent part of life in community is co-opted by our individualistic Christianity as a means to self-fulfillment (p. 67). 

In spite of all the communitarian talk we hear today, Bonhoeffer is right:  true community is not a human possibility. May the Spirit of God awaken his people to be the church!

Dave Dunbar is president of Biblical Seminary.  He has been married to Sharon for 42 years.  They have four grown children and six grand children.



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